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Further, the chapter discusses the following topicsregarding the interesting use of terminology across cultures: kinship terms,taxonomies, colors, prototypes, taboos and euphemisms. The 10th chapter of the book, ''Ethnographies'', pertains to a group's linguisticbehavior norms and the factors involved. The author perceives language as beingused to ''sustain reality. The following section, ''The Ethnography of Speaking'',predominantly considers the work of Hymes on ethnography ''a description of allthe factors that are relevant in understanding how [a] communicative eventachieves its objectives'' p.

Thesection dedicated to ethnomethodology involves ''the processes and techniquesthat people use to interpret the world around them and to interact with thatworld'' p. In his discussion,Wardhaugh explores the ''tu'' and ''vous'' distinction present in many languages intheir corresponding forms including Italian, German, Latin, Spanish, andSwedish. The author deliberates about how some of these languages vary in makingthis distinction using clear examples to illustrate his arguments. Further, heexplores ''Address Terms'', exploring some of the issues involved and noting theinteresting societal difference between terms of address applied towards peoplewhose status derives from their achievement versus their inheritance.

Additionally, the author maintains that politeness is socially prescribed andthat language is a tool that allows speakers to show their relationships toothers as well as their attitudes toward them. The last chapter in Part III, chapter 12, ''Talk and Action'', examines thefunction and conversational use of utterances. The chapter covers three broadtopics, ''Speech Acts'', ''Cooperation'', and ''Conversation'', each elaborating onrelevant sub-topics. The author states that the purpose of many utterances is tomake propositions, however he distinguishes between several types of utterance.

Wardhaugh views utterances as acts and conversations as the exchanges of theseacts involving cooperative activity between speakers and listeners. Among hisnumerous arguments under the section on ''Conversation'', the author addresses thecharacteristics of unplanned speech, turn taking, topics of discussion,feedback, insertion, repairs, classroom conversation, culture, power, and socialasymmetry.


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The fourth and final part of the book, ''Understanding and Intervening'', focuseson gender and linguistic differences chapter 13 , language disadvantage andeducation chapter 14 , language planning chapter 15 , and several concludingobservations chapter In chapter 13, ''Gender'', the author discusses his preference for the chaptertitle considering the issues in the use of alternative terms and current trends. In exploring gender differences with respect to language the author examines animpressive amount of research involving various languages dealing with genderand phonology, morphology, vocabulary, grammatical matters, and paralinguisticsystems, among other gender-related topics.

Some of the topics covered in the possible explanationsfor gender differences pertain to stereotyping, interruptions, back-channelingsignals, solidarity, identity, sexism, power relationships, sociolinguisticsub-cultures, behavior, and community of practice. Wardhaugh proposes thatgender differences in language are due to several factors including socialclass, race, culture, discourse type, group membership, child-rearing practicesand role differentiations in society.

The author begins with thewell-known claim that languages are functionally equal, however he adds that inthe social sense power differences create unequal perceptions of language. Wardhaugh closely examines Bernstein's socialization research based on a case inthe UK noting also the numerous criticisms of Bernstein's work and theories. Next, he addresses the phonology, morphology, syntactic characteristics, andhistorical roots of African American English AAE found in the literature. Thechapter concludes with the subsection ''Consequences for Education'', whichconcerns the widespread misunderstanding of AAE specifically from educators ,language discrimination, and the child's bidialectalism benefits an additiveapproach in education and society for example solidarity within the child'ssocial class.

The final topic of discussion, ''Planning'', chapter 15, investigates the issuesinvolved in language planning, drawing examples from numerous countries andtheir languages, and comments on language loss as well as the global role ofEnglish. Language planning is defined as a planned change in a language due to anation and government persuasion.

Wardhaugh discusses two types of languageplanning ''status planning and corpus planning'' , the ideologies involved inlanguage planning linguistic assimilation, linguistic pluralism,vernacularization, and internationalism in addition to other issues involved language rights and data gathering. In his analysis of a variety of linguisticsituations in the world, the author includes in his examples language planningsituations in France, Switzerland, Spain, Turkey, Russia, Finland, Kenya, India,Papau New Guinea, Singapore, Norway, Canada, China and the United States; thusencompassing various parts of the world to illustrate the diverse linguisticsituations regarding language planning.

Dell Hymes' SPEAKING Grid\Acronym,Ethnography of Communication

Further, the chapter addresses issuesconcerning language loss which is suggested to be occurring at an alarmingrate , and language spread specifically English. The conclusion, chapter 16, offers the readers the author's concluding remarksregarding the complexity of language, society, culture, and variation. He alsodiscusses the approaches namely quantification and ethnography for analyzingthe relationship between power and society.

Overall, the author is hopeful forthe future of sociolinguistics with respect to the newly adopted scientificapproaches and new discoveries in the area. The author's overview of the diverse relationshipsbetween language and society incorporates an extensive number of the world'slanguages and societies, offering a rich resource to learners in the area andeven further chapter-specific references included in the 'Further Reading'sections at the end of each chapter. Wardhaugh's work provides introductory sociolinguistic courses with an excellenttextbook, especially for advanced linguistic courses or graduate level courses.

However, the textbook may also be employed in a beginning sociolinguisticscourse with significant instructor preparation, for example, the instructorwould have to guide the learners by providing background information about someof the well-known studies of which the book assumes previous knowledge. Inpedagogical terms, the ''Exploration'' tasks found in every chapter, intended forfurther learner development on the presented topics, have a very practicalpurpose promoting critical thinking and evaluation.

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The tasks provide a studentwith a hands-on approach to the sociolinguistic issues discussed in each chapterby providing additional samples and data. While the ''Exploration'' sectionspedagogically benefit the learner, an additional section in each chapterdedicated to learner guidance would also be useful. The text would benefit fromcomprehension questions for content guidance, especially for beginningundergraduate courses.

The undergraduate population would gain fromtopic-specific questions that would elicit their comprehension of the multitudeof critical material included in the book. In its entirety, the book offers numerous contributions concerning thesociolinguistic realities found in several geographical contexts. The flaws aresmall-scale details when considering such an outstanding text. One of theseperceived minor flaws concerns how the Chomskyan perspective is presented.

Chapter 1 critically introduces prevalent Chomskyan ideas in the field,referring to them as asocial, and setting the stage for ''opposing views'' in thestudy of linguistics. However, should learners be persuaded towards such views,or should they be trusted to individually interpret these ideas? A more neutral approach to the Chomskyanperspective would allow the learner to think about how these fields withinlinguistics can complement and even benefit each other.

Wardhaugh suggests that one of the best explanations for change is that itinitiates among the higher social levels but is implemented by the lower sociallevels. Part III, ''Words at Work'' chapters 9 through 12 , centers on social andcultural issues affecting language use.

Chapter 9, ''Words and Culture'', explores the relationship between language andculture. Culture in this context refers to the societal functions of a person,specifically the knowledge required to function in a particular society. Thechapter provides a detailed explanation of Whorf's claim about languagestructure and its role in the speaker's world-view, concluding that thishypothesis remains unproved.

Further, the chapter discusses the following topicsregarding the interesting use of terminology across cultures: kinship terms,taxonomies, colors, prototypes, taboos and euphemisms. The 10th chapter of the book, ''Ethnographies'', pertains to a group's linguisticbehavior norms and the factors involved. The author perceives language as beingused to ''sustain reality. The following section, ''The Ethnography of Speaking'',predominantly considers the work of Hymes on ethnography ''a description of allthe factors that are relevant in understanding how [a] communicative eventachieves its objectives'' p.

Thesection dedicated to ethnomethodology involves ''the processes and techniquesthat people use to interpret the world around them and to interact with thatworld'' p. In his discussion,Wardhaugh explores the ''tu'' and ''vous'' distinction present in many languages intheir corresponding forms including Italian, German, Latin, Spanish, andSwedish.

The author deliberates about how some of these languages vary in makingthis distinction using clear examples to illustrate his arguments. Further, heexplores ''Address Terms'', exploring some of the issues involved and noting theinteresting societal difference between terms of address applied towards peoplewhose status derives from their achievement versus their inheritance. Additionally, the author maintains that politeness is socially prescribed andthat language is a tool that allows speakers to show their relationships toothers as well as their attitudes toward them.

The last chapter in Part III, chapter 12, ''Talk and Action'', examines thefunction and conversational use of utterances. The chapter covers three broadtopics, ''Speech Acts'', ''Cooperation'', and ''Conversation'', each elaborating onrelevant sub-topics. The author states that the purpose of many utterances is tomake propositions, however he distinguishes between several types of utterance.

LINGUIST List Sociolinguistics: Wardhaugh ()

Wardhaugh views utterances as acts and conversations as the exchanges of theseacts involving cooperative activity between speakers and listeners. Among hisnumerous arguments under the section on ''Conversation'', the author addresses thecharacteristics of unplanned speech, turn taking, topics of discussion,feedback, insertion, repairs, classroom conversation, culture, power, and socialasymmetry. The fourth and final part of the book, ''Understanding and Intervening'', focuseson gender and linguistic differences chapter 13 , language disadvantage andeducation chapter 14 , language planning chapter 15 , and several concludingobservations chapter In chapter 13, ''Gender'', the author discusses his preference for the chaptertitle considering the issues in the use of alternative terms and current trends.

In exploring gender differences with respect to language the author examines animpressive amount of research involving various languages dealing with genderand phonology, morphology, vocabulary, grammatical matters, and paralinguisticsystems, among other gender-related topics. Some of the topics covered in the possible explanationsfor gender differences pertain to stereotyping, interruptions, back-channelingsignals, solidarity, identity, sexism, power relationships, sociolinguisticsub-cultures, behavior, and community of practice.

Wardhaugh proposes thatgender differences in language are due to several factors including socialclass, race, culture, discourse type, group membership, child-rearing practicesand role differentiations in society. The author begins with thewell-known claim that languages are functionally equal, however he adds that inthe social sense power differences create unequal perceptions of language.

Wardhaugh closely examines Bernstein's socialization research based on a case inthe UK noting also the numerous criticisms of Bernstein's work and theories. Next, he addresses the phonology, morphology, syntactic characteristics, andhistorical roots of African American English AAE found in the literature. Thechapter concludes with the subsection ''Consequences for Education'', whichconcerns the widespread misunderstanding of AAE specifically from educators ,language discrimination, and the child's bidialectalism benefits an additiveapproach in education and society for example solidarity within the child'ssocial class.

The final topic of discussion, ''Planning'', chapter 15, investigates the issuesinvolved in language planning, drawing examples from numerous countries andtheir languages, and comments on language loss as well as the global role ofEnglish. Language planning is defined as a planned change in a language due to anation and government persuasion.

Wardhaugh discusses two types of languageplanning ''status planning and corpus planning'' , the ideologies involved inlanguage planning linguistic assimilation, linguistic pluralism,vernacularization, and internationalism in addition to other issues involved language rights and data gathering. In his analysis of a variety of linguisticsituations in the world, the author includes in his examples language planningsituations in France, Switzerland, Spain, Turkey, Russia, Finland, Kenya, India,Papau New Guinea, Singapore, Norway, Canada, China and the United States; thusencompassing various parts of the world to illustrate the diverse linguisticsituations regarding language planning.

Further, the chapter addresses issuesconcerning language loss which is suggested to be occurring at an alarmingrate , and language spread specifically English. The conclusion, chapter 16, offers the readers the author's concluding remarksregarding the complexity of language, society, culture, and variation. He alsodiscusses the approaches namely quantification and ethnography for analyzingthe relationship between power and society. Overall, the author is hopeful forthe future of sociolinguistics with respect to the newly adopted scientificapproaches and new discoveries in the area.

The Ethnography of Communication: An Introduction, 3rd Edition

The author's overview of the diverse relationshipsbetween language and society incorporates an extensive number of the world'slanguages and societies, offering a rich resource to learners in the area andeven further chapter-specific references included in the 'Further Reading'sections at the end of each chapter. Wardhaugh's work provides introductory sociolinguistic courses with an excellenttextbook, especially for advanced linguistic courses or graduate level courses.

However, the textbook may also be employed in a beginning sociolinguisticscourse with significant instructor preparation, for example, the instructorwould have to guide the learners by providing background information about someof the well-known studies of which the book assumes previous knowledge. Inpedagogical terms, the ''Exploration'' tasks found in every chapter, intended forfurther learner development on the presented topics, have a very practicalpurpose promoting critical thinking and evaluation.

The tasks provide a studentwith a hands-on approach to the sociolinguistic issues discussed in each chapterby providing additional samples and data.