- Migrances, diasporas et transculturalités francophones (Etudes transnationales, francophones et comparées) (French Edition)?
- The Drama-Free Office.
- 12 things women want men to know about sex.
- I Will Never Part From God, from Seventy-Nine Chorales, Op. 28, No. 70.
- First Contact.
One explanation, for example, has been that black females mature sexually at an earlier age than whites MacMahon, , and early menarche is associated with early sex. However, even controlling for early age at menarche, black-white differences remain Devaney and Hubley, Thus it may be that the racial difference is evidence for the impact of subcultural differences in attitude and value. However, most studies are unable to test for the effects of differential values and attitudes, since the point at which attitudes and values are measured may be after first intercourse, and sexual experience may have already affected their attitudes.
If the difference is cultural, it is unclear in what way. One interesting hypothesis that has been advanced involves different environments. Even middle class blacks, because of past histories of residential segregation, live in neighborhoods that are substantially poorer than their white counterparts, and their children are subjected to different pressures than white peers St.
John and Grasmick, Evidence for the importance of neighborhood was cited earlier Hogan and Kitagawa. The chances that a young black woman living in a poverty area of Chicago would have had sexual intercourse was twice as high as that of a young black woman living elsewhere in the city. It may also be true that it is hard even within SES groupings to find comparable samples of blacks and whites. There is evidence of some important differences in attitudes between blacks and whites. Blacks appear to be more sexually permissive than whites i.
Several studies Moore et al. Whites report just the opposite; they prefer an age at first marriage younger than age at first birth Moore et al. Moore et al. However, such attitudes may simply be a result of the prevalence of teen pregnancy in the black community, rather than a cause of it. One interesting, though dated, study, shows that in elementary school black boys and girls have attitudes similar to those of whites about marriage; however, these attitudes become less positive as time goes by; other race-sex groups do not show this decline Broderick, In conclusion, the research on black-white differences continues to show strong black-white differences in sexual intercourse at young ages, even controlling for differences in socioeconomic status.
Questions have been raised as to the adequacy of these controls, given the the substantially unequal distribution of socioeconomic status by race and racial inequality even within categories of SES. However, research has consistently found race differences which so far have not been explained by socioeconomic characteristics of the groups. These race differences should be taken seriously and more effort paid to explaining them. Finally, research has not studied the initiation of sexual activity early enough to capture the transition for the majority of black males and a large proportion of black females.
Of what prepubertal sexual activity consists and what it means is an important and still very much open question. Although ethnicity is an important dimension, little research has been conducted on the experience of ethnic subgroups. Hispanics are a particularly important subgroup on which data have only recently become available.
Note that Hispanic teens are apparently more likely than whites but less likely than blacks to be sexually active at each age. However, Hispanic teens are also more likely to be married than either white or black teens. In 12 percent of Hispanic versus 6 and 3 percent of non-Hispanic white and non-Hispanic black teens were currently married, and 20 percent of Hispanic versus 8 percent of non-Hispanic white and 4 percent of non-Hispanic black teens had ever been married.
Thus a larger part of the sexual activity among Hispanic teens than non-Hispanic is postmarital. Comparing never married teens only, Hispanic teen women are least likely to be sexually active—37 percent, compared with 39 percent of non-Hispanic white and other teens and 57 percent of non-Hispanic black teens Torres and Singh, Although this descriptive information is helpful, a rigorous comparison of the factors affecting first intercourse among Hispanic males and females, comparable to non-Hispanic whites and blacks, needs to be conducted.
A recent analysis of the National Survey of Children Furstenberg et al. Blacks were 4 times as likely as whites to initiate sex by age 15 or The only factor that reduced the race difference in the initiation of sex was whether the respondent attended a segregated school.
Blacks who attended a segregated school over 90 percent black were 13 times as likely as whites in segregated schools percent white to have had sex by age 15— In contrast, blacks in integrated schools less than 90 percent black were only 2. The authors believe that the effect of the school is a normative one which works through peer influence. The authors found a strong association between attending a segregated school and the number of friends the respondent reported had had sexual intercourse and between the number of friends reported to have had sexual intercourse and whether the respondent had intercourse.
Blacks in segregated schools were more likely and whites less likely to have had sex. However, the timing of the question is such that the authors couldn't be certain that peers actually influenced the respondent's behavior see Peer Group discussion, below. The media. Children watch a lot television, and early adolescents apparently watch the most. One study showed that viewing increases with age to an average of 4 hours a day at age 12 Comstock et al.
Another study showed that 11—12 year old boys, the heaviest viewers, watch an average of 26 hours per week Timmer et al. Content analyses of television have shown an increase in the frequency of sexual references on television during the mid to late s Orr, It was during this same period that the US experienced a major increase in sexual activity among teenagers. Was television a causal factor, or does it just reflect changes in the broader society?
For Teens: How to Make Healthy Decisions About Sex - cafhandslumternsys.gq
Because of its broad and ubiquitous reach, it would seem important to know what effects the content and hours of television viewing might have on children. Unfortunately, it is its broad reach that also makes such research difficult to conduct. Most research has focused on the effects of the portrayal of violence on television on aggression and violence in children. Very little research has focused on the relationship between sexual content in television programming and the early initiation of sexual activity among young teenagers. The major problems with conducting this research are two: first, to obtain some idea whether television affects behavior, a researcher would have to have information on viewing and sexual behavior at two time points to be able to infer whether viewing at the early time point resulted in a change in behavior between the two time points.
An association between viewing behavior and sexual behavior at one time point alone could indicate that those who are sexually active become more interested in programs with more sexual content, rather than the other way around. Second, assuming even that two time points are available, a more serious problem with attributing any change to television is that of demonstrating a change in television programming or viewing habits strong enough to cause a change in behavior.
That is, children have been watching television with sexual content for a substantial number of years before becoming sexually active. Why all of a sudden would watching the same types of programs cause teens to become sexually active? On the other hand, if there were a change of programming or a change of viewing habits there might be cause for a change of behavior.
This would necessitate substantial long term documentation of viewing habits, a very difficult research problem. Television's broad reach makes rigorous scientific reseach as to its effects both important and extremely problemmatic. There have been several studies that have found associations between virgin and non-virgin status and amount of viewing of television with high sexual content Roberts, ; Greenberg, ; Newcomer and Brown, Unfortunately, no causal connection can be inferred from these studies.
There is one study so far with data on television viewing at two points in time and information on sexual experience.
Making Healthy Sexual Decisions
This study is based on an analysis of the National Survey of Children, who were interviewed in when they were 7—11 and again in when they were 11— The authors found a weak association between amount of television viewed in and whether sexually experienced in for boys, but not girls. Heavy viewers were most likely to be experienced, but moderate, not light viewers were least experienced. For boys, there is a strong positive correlation between viewing time and sexual experience among those who view teleivision apart from their parents. For this group of boys, the experience rate for the heaviest viewers is nearly six times that of the lightest viewers.
For those who view with their parents, greater television viewing is associated with much lower level of sexual experience. However, the authors conclude that they find no strong or consistent evidence for a link between the quantity and content of television viewing and the initiation of sexual activity.
The authors had no information on program content in In addition, the measure of sexual activity was very restricted, and the sample sizes were small. However, the interesting male-female differences are consistent with important sex differences found in other studies and more research is needed.
Teenage and premarital sexual activity are not new, of course. One study Udry et al. The substantial increase during the s is well documented. According to the major study of sexual activity over that decade Zelnik et al. The increase was greater for whites than blacks, from 26 percent in to 38 percent in and 47 percent in , an increase of 82 percent.
The proportion of blacks sexually experienced increased 23 percent from 54 percent in to 66 percent in with no increase between and Table 1. In contrast, the proportion who reported having had sexual intercourse had leveled off for black women between and ; between and the proportion of black never married teens in metropolitan areas who reported that they had experienced their sexual debut declined slightly to 53 percent Table 1.
The difference between the sexual experience of white and black females appears to have declined slightly over time.
For Teens: How to Make Healthy Decisions About Sex
Unfortunately, national trend data for teen males 15 to 19 are limited. Date from small scale studies Table 1. In the Johns Hopkins study of , 56 percent of 17, 66 percent of 18 and 77 percent of 19 year old males reported that they had had premarital intercourse.
Since levels have historically been higher for comparably aged males than for females, the changes during the s were apparently greater for young women. The difference in sexual experience between men and women has certainly declined and a number of studies suggest that it may disappear or even reverse as the double standard declines see, for example, Lewin, ; Jessor and Jessor, Recent leveling off among females with continued increase among black males suggest that a continued decline in the difference in sexual activity between teen men and women has not occurred in the U.
The causes of the increase in sexual activity in the s and the apparent stability in the early s have not been explored empirically.
One development appears important. The decade was characterized by a trend toward later marriage Table 5.
It may have been unrealistic to expect most young people to abstain from coitus entirely until marriage. Recent data from Tanfer indicate that 82 percent of unmarried 20 to 29 year olds say they had had coitus. The behavior of unmarried teenagers is not inconsistent with that of their older, unmarried counterparts. Two important additional developments often implicated in changes varying from increased divorce to declining religiosity are the development and widespread use of the contraceptive pill and the increased employment of women outside the home.
There is no direct empirical evidence on the association of increased teen sexual activity with any of these broader societal changes.